Madame Marie Tussaud

Anna Maria "Marie" Tussaud (född Grosholtz; 1 december 1761 - 16 april 1850) var en franskfödd konstnär av tysk härkomst, som blev känd för sina vaxskulpturer och Madame Tussauds, vaxmuseet som hon grundade i London. Madame Tussauds självporträtt i vax, 42 år. Marie Tussaud föddes den 1 december 1761 i Strasbourg, Frankrike. Hennes far, Joseph Grosholtz, dödades i sjuårskriget bara två månader innan Marie föddes. Hennes mamma, Anne-Marie Walder, tog henne till Bern där hon arbetade som hushållerska för Dr Philippe Curtius (1741–1794), en läkare och vaxskulptör som Marie skulle kalla sin farbror. Curtius använde ursprungligen sin talang för vaxmodellering för att illustrera anatomi. Senare gjorde han porträtt. Den äldsta skärmen är "Törnrosa", Madame DuBarry. Curtius flyttade till Paris 1765 för att etablera en skåp de porträtt en cire (vaxporträttutställning). Det året gjorde han ett vaxarbete av Louis XVs sista älskarinna, Madame du Barry, en roll som är det äldsta verket som för närvarande visas. Ett år senare gick Tussaud och hennes mor till Curtius i Paris. Den första utställningen av Curtius vaxverk visades 1770 och lockade en stor publik. 1776 flyttades utställningen till Palais Royal och år 1782 öppnade Curtius en andra utställning, Caverne des Grands Voleurs, en föregångare till den senare fasan, på Boulevard du Temple. Vaxstatyn av Voltaire som visas på Madame Tussauds, London. Det var Curtius som lärde Tussaud konsten att modellera vax. Hon visade talang för tekniken och började arbeta för honom som konstnär. År 1777 skapade hon sin första vaxfigur, Voltaire. Från 1780 fram till revolutionen 1789 skapade Tussaud många av hennes mest kända porträtt av kändisar som Voltaire och Benjamin Franklin. Samtidigt förblev hon på goda villkor med den franska kungafamiljen. Hon hävdade under senare år att ha varit anställd för att lära ut "votive" till Élisabeth, syster till Louis XVI. Det sägs att Elisabeth tyckte om att göra vaxdockor för att representera olika religiösa personer. I sina memoarer (en viss vilken opålitlig källa) hävdade Tussaud att det var i denna egenskap som hon ofta var förtrogen med privata konversationer mellan prinsessan och hennes bror och medlemmar av hans domstol. Hon hävdade också att medlemmar i den kungliga familjen var så nöjda med hennes arbete att hon blev inbjuden att bo i Versailles. I Paris blev Tussaud involverad i den franska revolutionen och träffade många av dess viktiga personer inklusive Napoleon Bonaparte och Robespierre. Den 12 juli 1789 bar vaxhuvud av Jacques Necker och duc d'Orléans gjorda av Curtius i en protestmarsch två dagar före attacken på Bastillen. Den franska kungafamiljen, efter modell av Madame Tussaud. Tussaud arresterades under Terror of Reign tillsammans med Joséphine de Beauharnais; hennes huvud rakades som förberedelse för avrättning med giljotin. Men tack vare Collot d'Herbois stöd för Curtius och hans hushåll släpptes hon. Tussaud anställdes sedan för att göra dödsmasker för tidens offer, inklusive några av revolutionens mest ökända döda som Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Marat och Robespierre. Hennes dödsmaskar hölls upp som revolutionära flaggor och paradade genom Paris gator. Snart letade Tussaud igenom sanitärer och samlade de mest berömda huvuden hon kunde hitta. När Curtius dog 1794 lämnade han sin samling av vaxverk till Tussaud. År 1795 gifte hon sig med François Tussaud. Paret hade två barn, Joseph och François. 1802, efter Amiensfördraget, åkte Tussaud till London med sin son Joseph, då fyra år gammal, för att presentera sin porträttsamling efter att ha accepterat en inbjudan från Paul Philidor, en magisk lykta och fantasmagoria-pionjär, att ställa ut sitt arbete tillsammans med hans visa på Lyceum Theatre, London. Hon gick inte särskilt bra ekonomiskt, med Philidor som tog hälften av sin vinst. När Marie Tussaud flyttade till London 1802 för att sätta upp sin egen utställning på Lyceum Theatre tog hon med sig några av dessa figurer och satte upp dem i ett separat galleri; och när hon senare turnerade genom sina utställningar runt om i landet behöll hon denna uppdelning i sin utställning med hjälp av ett "separat rum" för att visa dem i. Utställningarna omfattade vid den här tiden cheferna för kung Louis XVI och Marie Antoinette samt Madame du Barry , Marat, Robespierre, Hébert, Carrier och Fouquier-Tinville förutom modeller av en giljotin och Bastillen och den egyptiska mumien från Curtuis samling. En annons för Madame Tussauds utställning. Som ett resultat av Napoleonskriget kunde Tussaud inte återvända till Frankrike så hon reste med sin samling genom hela Storbritannien och Irland. År 1822, antagligen under Chateaubriands ambassadörskap, gick hennes andra son, François, med henne. 1835 etablerade hon sin första permanenta utställning på Baker Street, på övervåningen i "Baker Street Bazaar". Här blev 'Separatrummet' 'Horrors Chamber'. Vid denna tid inkluderade hennes utställningar överste Despard, Arthur Thistlewood, William Corder och Burke and Hare, förutom de som anges ovan. Namnet "Horrors Chamber" krediteras ofta en bidragsgivare till Stansa 1845, men Marie Tussaud verkar ha sitt ursprung i det och använde det i reklam redan 1843. Besökare fick en extra sexpens för att komma in i det "separata rummet". hamber-of-Horrors-1849-av-Richard-Doyle-1824–1883-httpwww.gutenberg.orgfiles3774537745-h37745-h.htm.-Licensed-under-PD-US-via-Wikipedia-httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiFileChamber_of_Horrors_1849.jpgmediavie Horror Chamber År 1838 skrev hon sina memoarer. År 1842 gjorde hon ett självporträtt som nu visas vid ingången till hennes museum. Några av de skulpturer som Tussaud själv gjort finns fortfarande kvar. Madame Tussaud, hon själv, hälsar besökare på sitt epoymous museum. Hon dog i sömnen i London den 16 april 1850 vid 88 års ålder. Det finns en minnestavla till Madame Marie Tussaud på höger sida av skeppet till St. Marys romersk-katolska kyrka, Cadogan Street, London. tussaud Madame Tussauds söner, från "Madame Tussauds romantik Efter Marie Tussauds pensionering blev hennes son François (eller Francis) chefskonstnär för utställningen. Han efterträddes i sin tur av sin son Joseph, som efterträddes av sin son John Theodore Tussaud. Madame Tussauds, London Madame Tussauds vaxmuseum har nu vuxit till att bli en av de största turistattraktionerna i London och har expanderat med filialer i Amsterdam, Bangkok, Sydney, Madame Tussauds Hong Kong (Victoria Peak), Las Vegas, Shanghai, Berlin, Washington DC, New York City och Hollywood. Nuvarande ägare är Merlin Entertainments Group,[3] ett företag som ägs av Blackstone Group.
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